Safety and Cost Effectiveness of Private Prisons

Tabled: 29 March 2018

Appendix B. Service delivery outcomes and key performance indicators

SDOs and KPIs are the key measures of prison performance.

SDOs apply to both public and private prisons, although not all SDOs apply to all prisons.

KPIs only apply to the private prisons—18 of the KPIs apply to Port Phillip, and 16 to Fulham.

The SDO and KPI thresholds use various measures:

  • zero tolerance—requires 100 per cent compliance or no incidents
  • a percentage result—for example, for positive drug tests
  • number of incident points—adjusted to account for prisoner numbers.

DJR allocated a threshold for each SDO and KPI which prisons are required to meet. For some measures, prisons must stay below the threshold—for example, SDO 8 (random general urinalysis)—while for other measures, they need to meet or exceed the threshold—for example, SDO 14 (engagement in meaningful activity).

In addition to the SDOs and KPIs, under the new contracts, the private operators are subject to four charge events. These events are deaths, escapes, acts of material indiscipline, such as riots, and professional misconduct.

If a charge event occurs and the operator's actions or failure to act contributed to the event, the operator must pay a specified amount to the state.

Figures B1, B2 and B3 summarise the charge events, SDOs and KPIs in Victoria's prisons.

Figure B1
CV's charge events for private prisons

Event

Intent

Measure

Prisoner escapes

To maintain lawful custody of all prisoners.

Each Level 2 and Level 3 Prisoner Escape.

Deaths

This charge event is intended to emphasise the importance of:

  • a secure facility
  • the safety of prisoners, staff and visitors
  • staff acting professionally
  • good intelligence models
  • healthy interactions between staff and prisoners.

Each death (primarily caused by a failure of the operator).

Serious professional misconduct

As above.

Each incident of serious professional misconduct.

Acts of material indiscipline (riot/hostage)

As above.

Each act of material indiscipline.

Source: VAGO based on data provided by CV.

Figure B2
CV's SDOs

SDO

Intent

Measure

Prisons measured

1

Escapes

To minimise the number of escapes and maintain lawful custody of all prisoners.

Number of incident points per 100 prisoners incurred in the relevant period due to prisoner escapes.

All

2

Assaults on staff or other persons by a prisoner

To minimise the number and severity of assaults on staff or other persons by prisoners.

Number of incident points per 100 prisoners incurred in the relevant period due to assaults on staff or other persons by prisoners.

All

3

Out of cell hours

To maximise prisoners' daily out of cell hours, consistent with the approved regime under which they are managed, while acknowledging that the maintenance of a safe and secure prison environment will at times require the restriction of prisoners to their cells or specified areas during normal unlock hours.

Number of incidents of failure to provide prisoners with the Approved Out of Cell Hours for the relevant period.

All

4

Number of unnatural deaths

To have no unnatural deaths of prisoners.

Number of unnatural deaths that have occurred in the relevant period

All

5

Self-harm

To minimise the number of incidents of self-harm and ensure the effective management of prisoners at risk of self-harm or suicide.

Number of incident points per 100 prisoners incurred in the relevant period due to self-harm incidents.

All

6

Assaults on prisoners by other prisoners

To minimise the number and severity of assaults on prisoners by other prisoners.

Number of incident points per prisoners incurred in the relevant period due to assaults on prisoners by other prisoners.

All

7

Assaults on prisoners by staff

To prevent any assaults on prisoners by staff.

The number of assaults by staff that have occurred in the relevant period.

All

8

Random general urinalysis

To measure and deter the use of illicit drugs within prisons.

Percentage of Positive and Positive Equivalent Random general urinalysis results of an Effective Sample.

All

9

Health assessment within 24 hours

To assure prisoners have their general and mental health needs assessed promptly.

Percentage of prisoners assessed within the required time frame.

All

10

At risk assessments

To ensure prisoners identified as being 'at risk' promptly receive an 'At Risk' assessment.

Percentage of prisoners seen within the required time frame.

All

11

Chronic health care plans

To identify, manage and improve the health and wellbeing of prisoners in custody.

Percentage of required Chronic Health Care Plans provided in the time frame.

All

12

Maintenance of accredited health provider status

To monitor that accredited health provider status is maintained.

Accredited health provider status is maintained for all providers.

Port Phillip only as part of old contract

13

Professional misconduct (health staff)

To monitor any incidents of professional misconduct by a healthcare provider or healthcare professional.

Incidents of professional misconduct.

Port Phillip only as part of old contract

14

Prisoners engaged in purposeful activity

To promote prisoner rehabilitation and their constructive engagement.

Percentage of relevant prisoners engaged for a minimum of 60 hours per fortnight.

All excluding MAP and MRC

15

Vocational education and training participation

To encourage prisoners to increase their participation in education.

Percentage of prisoners actively participating in approved education and training.

All excluding MAP

16

Education competency completions

To maximise the number of enrolments in education and training units of competency/modules that result in a successful completion.

Percentage of closed enrolments that result in a prisoner successfully completing that training.

All

17

Prison related harm reduction

The provision of information to prisoners regarding strategies to minimise harm to themselves and others while in custody.

Percentage of relevant prisoners provided with training in the required time frame.

Only applied at MAP, MRC and DPFC

18A 18B

Offending behaviour and alcohol and other drugs program

18A—To ensure the delivery of Offending behaviour programs (OBP) and alcohol and other drugs (AOD) programs.

Percentage of OBP and AOD scheduled programs delivered.

Fulham and PPP in the new contract

18B—To encourage prisoner completion. Percentage of prisoners who commence then complete OBP and AOD programs. All except MAP and MRC

19

Governor's disciplinary hearings

To ensure disciplinary hearings are promptly conducted.

Percentage of hearings completed.

Excluded public prisons from 2010–11. Applied at Fulham and Port Phillip until the end of the previous contracts.

20A

Training Assistance Programs

To ensure that prisoners receive transitional support prior to release.

Percentage of prisoners discharged that participate in the leaving prison information session.

Percentage of referrals made to post-release services for prisoners assessed with particular support needs, for example housing or Centrelink.

All prisons

20B

Remand Release Assistance Program

To ensure remand prisoners are provided with information about post release support.

Percentage of remand prisoners who attend a release program within the time frame.

Excludes Loddon, Karreenga and all minimum-security prisons.

21

Prisoner survey

To measure indicators of a healthy prison.

Prisoner survey results.

All

22

Prison industries

To ensure prison industries meet agreed sales targets.

Percentage of gross sales against sales targets.

Excludes Fulham, Port Phillip and MAP

23

Case management

To drive effective case management of prisoners.

Average case management audit score.

All

24

Occupational health and safety

To monitor OHS within the work environment.

Days lost per 100 full‑time‑equivalent staff.

Excludes Fulham and Port Phillip

25

Disability training

To ensure custodial staff in the Marlborough unit at Port Phillip are adequately trained to work with prisoners with a cognitive impairment.

Number of hours and the number of staff who have successfully completed the training.

Port Phillip only

Source: VAGO based on information provided by CV.

The following KPIs are part of the new contracts with Port Phillip and Fulham and are consistent with the Ravenhall contracts. Not all KPIs apply at all three prisons, this depends on the nature of the services provided.

Figure B3
CV's KPIs for private prisons

KPI

Objective

Measure

Prisons measured

1

Health discharge plans

To ensure prisoners with significant health issues requiring ongoing health care are released with a health discharge plan to promote continuity of care upon release into the community.

Percentage of relevant prisoners with a health discharge plan upon release in the relevant period.

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

2

Communicable diseases services and immunisation

To ensure all prisoners initially received into the prison system are offered screening for communicable diseases and immunisation status.

Percentage of prisoners initially received into the prison system who are offered screening for communicable diseases and immunisation status within the relevant period.

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

3

Positive drug test verification

To increase the effectiveness of urinalysis testing programs in prisons by ensuring prisoners who receive a positive urinalysis drug test result have their test result verified in the required time frame to determine whether a prescribed medication caused the positive urine drug test result.

Percentage of positive drug tests that were verified in the required time frame in the relevant period.

Threshold = 95% compliance

All

4

Provision of timely primary health services

To ensure prisoners are provided with timely primary health services.

Percentage of primary health services provided within the required time frames during the relevant period.

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

5

Completion of identified drug user (IDU) reviews

To ensure IDU reviews occur in a timely manner.

Percentage of IDU reviews completed within the required time frame.

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

6

Release on the correct date

To ensure prisoners are released on the correct date.

Number of prisoners in the relevant period who are released on the correct date.

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

8(a)

Carrying out scheduled facility management services tasks

To drive the importance of a secure facility, and maintaining infrastructure quality standards.

Number of incident points incurred in the relevant period for failures to undertake planned maintenance and other facility management services tasks. Rated according to severity.

Threshold = up to 20 incident points

All

9

Rectifying facilities management service failures

To ensure that failure events are rectified in a timely manner.

Number of incident points incurred in the relevant period for failures to rectify a failure event within the rectification time. Rated according to severity.

Threshold = up to 120 incident points

All

10

Responding to service failure notices and default notices

To ensure that service failures as notified by the state are responded to in a timely and effective manner.

Number of incident points for failures in the relevant period to comply with a service failure notice or a default notice within the required time frames.

Rated according to severity.

Threshold = 0 incident points

All

11

Incident reporting

To ensure that all reportable incidents and notifiable incidents are recorded and reported in the required data systems.

Number of failures to report any reportable incident or notifiable incident in the relevant period.

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

12

Performance data

To ensure that the requirements with respect to performance data are met, including provision of data, and ensuring the availability, integrity and accuracy of data.

Number of failures to provide relevant performance data (defined in the contract).

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

13

Providing plans and reports

To ensure that the requirements with respect to provision of plans and reports are met.

Number of failures in the relevant period to meet the requirements with respect to plans and reports as outlined in Schedule 25 of the contracts.

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

14

Trend performance

To drive the early identification of multiple service indicators that are at risk of not being met, and the development and implementation of strategies to respond to and avoid this actually occurring.

Incidents of multiple failures of service indicators either in the given quarter or in two consecutive quarters.

Threshold scaled according to severity of the failure.

All

15

Reintegration KPIs measure whether assessments occur of individual prisoner's needs after release, that referrals for support are made and that these supports are maintained. Not all prisoners are eligible or require all supports and are therefore not included in the measure.

  • Education or training—completion of education or training activities following release.
  • Employment—maintenance of stable employment of 20 hours or more per week for two months following release.
  • Housing—maintenance of stable accommodation for two months following release.
  • Alcohol and other drugs—maintenance of alcohol and other drug treatment programs for two months following release.
  • Mental health—maintenance of mental health treatment for two months following release.

Ravenhall only

16

Reducing recidivism

To measure the rate at which prisoners released from the prison return to any prison within a specified period of time, providing an indication of the influence of the contractor upon recidivism.

The percentage difference between the rate of returns to prison for qualifying prisoners who are released from the prison, and the rate of returns to prison for qualifying prisoners who are released from other Victorian prisons, measured two years after release.

Ravenhall only

17

Provision of timely forensic mental health services

To ensure prisoners have access to timely forensic mental health services.

Percentage of forensic mental health services provided within the required time frame during the relevant period.

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

18

Percentage of relevant prisoners with a mental health recovery plan

To ensure that prisoners with a mental illness or a significant mental health issue are provided with a mental health recovery plan in a timely manner.

Percentage of relevant prisoners with a mental health recovery plan established within the required time frame.

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

19

Review of mental health recovery plans

To ensure effective and appropriate treatment and ongoing management of prisoners with a mental illness or significant mental health issue.

Percentage of mental health recovery plans that were reviewed within the required time frame.

Threshold = 100% compliance

All

20

Follow up of prisoners discharged from mental health inpatient care

To ensure prisoners discharged from mental health inpatient care are followed up within the required time frame to ensure continuity of care.

Percentage of relevant prisoners who have been followed up within the required time frame.

Threshold = 100% compliance

Ravenhall and Port Phillip

21

Mental health discharge plans upon release

To ensure prisoners with mental illness or significant mental health issues requiring ongoing care are released from prison with a mental health discharge plan to promote continuity of care upon release into the community.

Percentage of relevant prisoners with a mental health discharge plan upon release in the relevant period.

Threshold = 100% compliance

Ravenhall and Port Phillip

22

Forensic mental health service assessment within 24 hours

To ensure that prisoners transferred for the purpose of a forensic mental health service assessment are assessed within the required time frame.

Percentage of relevant prisoners where the forensic mental health service assessment was completed within the required time frame.

Threshold = 100% compliance

Ravenhall only

23

Management of referrals to Forensicare

To ensure that the contractor adheres to the criteria developed by Forensicare for the referral of prisoners to the forensic mental health services.

Percentage of referrals to the forensic mental health services in the relevant period that adhere to the criteria for referral of prisoners to the forensic mental health services.

Threshold = 90% compliance

Ravenhall only

24

Reintegration assessment and referral

To ensure that the contractor prepares individual reintegration plans and, where a need is identified, refers prisoners to its Ravenhall Alliance partners.

Percentage of prisoners released from the prison for whom individual reintegration plans are developed and who are, where a need is identified in the individual reintegration plan, referred to an appropriate Ravenhall Alliance partner.

Threshold = 100% compliance

Ravenhall only

(a) There is no KPI 7.

Source: VAGO based on information provided by CV.

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