Technical and Further Education Institutes: 2016 Audit Snapshot

Tabled: 7 June 2017

Appendix F.Glossary


Responsibility of public entities to achieve their objectives in reliability of financial reporting, effectiveness and efficiency of operations, compliance with applicable laws, and reporting to interested parties.


An item or resource controlled by an entity that will be used to generate future economic benefits.

Asset replacement value

The cost of rebuilding or replacing an existing capital asset to its initial standard.

Audit Act 1994

Victorian legislation establishing the Auditor-General's operating powers and responsibilities and detailing the nature and scope of audits that the Auditor-General may carry out.

Audit opinion

A written expression within a specified framework, indicating the auditor's overall conclusion about a financial (or performance) report based on audit evidence.

Calendar year

A period of a year beginning with January 1 and ending with December 31.

Capital expenditure

Money an entity spends on:

  • new physical assets, including buildings, infrastructure, plant and equipment
  • renewing existing physical assets to extend the service potential or life of the asset.

Carrying value

The original cost of an asset, less the accumulated amount of any depreciation, less the accumulated amount of any asset impairment.

Clear audit opinion

A positive written expression provided when the financial report has been prepared and presents fairly the transactions and balances for the reporting period in keeping with the requirements of the relevant legislation and Australian Accounting Standards—also referred to as an unqualified audit opinion.

Current asset

An asset that will be sold or realised within 12 months of the end of the financial year being reported on, such as term deposits maturing in three months or stock items available for sale.

Current liability

A liability that will be settled within 12 months of the end of the financial year being reported on, such as payment of a creditor for services provided to the entity.


When total expenditure is more than total revenue.


The systematic allocation of the value of an asset over its expected useful life, recorded as an expense.

Disclaimer of opinion

Conclusion expressed if the auditor is unable to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence on which to base an audit opinion, and the auditor concludes that the possible effects on the financial (or performance) report of undetected misstatements, if any, could be both material and pervasive.

Emphasis of matter

A paragraph included in an audit opinion that refers to a matter appropriately presented or disclosed in the financial report that, in the auditor's judgement, is of such importance that it is fundamental to users' understanding of the financial report.


A corporate or unincorporated body that has a public function to exercise on behalf of the state or is wholly owned by the state, including departments, statutory authorities, statutory corporations and government business enterprises.

Equity or net assets

Residual interest in the asset of an entity after deduction of its liabilities.


The outflow of assets or the depletion of assets an entity controls during the financial year, including expenditure and the depreciation of physical assets. An expense can also be the incurrence of liabilities during the financial year, such as increases to a provision.

Facilities condition index

The current condition of the asset measured relative to its as-new condition. The facilities condition index (FCI) is determined by the formula: FCI = 1 – (Backlog maintenance/Asset replacement value)

Fair value

The price that would be received if an asset was sold or the price paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

Financial Management Act 1994

Victorian legislation governing public sector entities, as determined by the Minister for Finance, including their financial reporting framework.

Financial report

A document reporting the financial outcome and position of an entity for a financial year, which contains an entity's financial statements, including a comprehensive income statement, a balance sheet, a cash flow statement, a comprehensive statement of equity and notes.

Financial Reporting Directions

Issued by the Minister for Finance for entities reporting under the Financial Management Act 1994, with the aim of:

  • achieving consistency and improved disclosure in financial reporting for Victorian public entities by eliminating or reducing divergence in accounting practices
  • prescribing the accounting treatment and disclosure of financial transactions in circumstances where there are choices in accounting treatment, or where existing accounting procurements have no guidance or requirements.

Financial sustainability

An entity's ability to manage financial resources so it can meet its current and future spending commitments, while maintaining assets in the condition required to provide services.

Financial year

A period of 12 months for which a financial report is prepared, which may be a different period to a calendar year.

Going concern

An entity that is expected to be able to pay its debts when they fall due, and continue in operation without any intention or necessity to liquidate or otherwise wind up its operations.


The control arrangements used to govern and monitor an entity's activities to achieve its strategic and operational goals.


The amount by which the value of an entity's asset exceeds its recoverable value.

Internal audit

A function of an entity's governance framework that examines and reports to management on the effectiveness of risk management, internal controls and governance processes.

Internal control

A method of directing, monitoring and measuring an entity's resources and processes to prevent and detect error and fraud.


Weaknesses or other concerns in the governance structure of an entity identified during a financial audit, which are reported to the entity in a management letter.


A present obligation of an entity arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow of assets from the entity.

Maintenance backlog

Essential maintenance work that has not been carried out and is deemed necessary to bring the condition of a maintainable asset up to a standard or acceptable level of risk to enable the required service delivery functions of the asset to continue.

Management letter

A letter the auditor writes to the governing body, the audit committee and management of an entity outlining issues identified during the financial audit.

Net result

The value that an entity has earned or lost over the stated period (usually a financial year or calendar year), calculated by subtracting an entity's total expenses from the total revenue for that period.

Non-current asset

An asset that will be sold or realised later than 12 months after the end of the financial year being reported on, such as investments with a maturity date of two years or physical assets the entity holds for long-term use.

Non-current liability

A liability that will be settled later than 12 months after the end of the financial year being reported on, such as repayments on a five-year loan that are not due in the next 12 months.

Performance report

A statement detailing an entity's predetermined performance indicators and targets for the financial year, and the actual results achieved, along with explanations for any significant variations between the results and targets.

Physical asset

A non-financial asset that is a tangible item an entity controls, and that will be used by the entity for more than 12 months to generate profit or provide services, such as building, equipment or land.

Qualified audit opinion

An opinion issued when the auditor concludes that an unqualified opinion cannot be expressed because of:

  • disagreement with those charged with governance or
  • conflict between applicable financial reporting frameworks or
  • limitation of scope.

A qualified opinion is considered to be unqualified except for the effects of the matter that relates to the qualification.

Relevant measures and indicators

Measures and indicators an entity uses if they have a logical and consistent relationship to its objectives and are linked to the outcomes to be achieved.


The restatement of a value of non-current assets at a particular point in time.


Inflows of funds or other assets or savings in outflows of service potential, or future economic benefits in the form of increases in assets or reductions in liabilities of an entity, other than those relating to contributions by owners, that result in an increase in equity during the reporting period.


The chance of a negative or positive impact on the objectives, outputs or outcomes of the entity.

Risk register

A tool an entity uses to help identify, monitor and mitigate risks.

Self-funding entities

Entities that generate most of their revenue from their operations, rather than from government funding.

Strategic plan

A document an entity uses to communicate to its staff and board its organisational goals, the actions needed to achieve those goals and other critical elements developed during the planning exercise.

Unmodified opinion

The audit opinion that the auditor expresses when concluding that the financial (or performance) report is prepared, in all material respects, in keeping with the applicable reporting framework.

Back to Top